Definition of nursing, its functions
The definition of nursing was given by the founders of the sisterhood, professional nursing organizations.
In the historical aspect, the first scientific definition of nursing was given to the world-famous nurse Florence Nightingale. In 1859, in her Notes on Care, she defined the sisterhood as “an action using the environment for the purpose of the most rapid recovery of the patient”. At the same time, the goal of nursing was defined as “to create favorable conditions for the patient to activate his personal strengths”. Under these conditions F. Nightingale had in mind purity, fresh air, proper nutrition. She believed that caring for the sick and caring for the healthy are two important but different areas of nursing activity:
- caring for the healthy is “maintaining a person in a state in which the disease does not develop”;
- caring for the sick is “to help a person suffering from a disease, to live the most fulfilling life that brings pleasure”.
The laws of nursing activity are the same as the laws of health.
According to F. Nightingale, "caring for the sick is the same art as painting and sculpture, this is the highest of the arts, but what does it mean to work on a stone or canvases in comparison to working on a living human body! The art of nursing is the highest of arts, so the most terrible danger that threatens him is the danger of becoming an ordinary craft..."
Calling the nursing art, she believed that this art requires “organization, practical and scientific training”. One of the best definitions of sisterhood belongs to the American nurse, teacher and researcher Virginia Henderson. The International Council of Nurses in 1958 asked her to give her definition of a sister duel. In 1966, V. Henderson published the book The Nature of Nursing: Definition, Ways to Put into Practice, Research and Education. In the book the author gives the basic principles of the nurse's activity in caring for patients. The book was translated into 25 languages. Until now, it is used by many nurses.
B. Henderson states: "The unique task of the nurse is to help a person, a patient or a healthy person, in carrying out those actions in relation to his health, recovery or calm death that this person would perform himself, having the necessary strength, knowledge and will..."
The sister is “the feet of the legless, the eyes of the blind, the support of the child, the source of knowledge and confidence for the young mother, the mouth of those who are too weak to speak...". The nature of the sisterhood (nursing) is complex, and attempts to define it continued.
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